Journal of European Studies <p><img src="/public/site/images/openjournal/banner1.png"></p> <p>The Journal of European Studies is a bi-annual journal published by the Centre. It is a Higher Education Commision (HEC), Pakistan recognized Journal. The Journal is Abstracted / Indexed in Social Science Research Network (SSRN), International Politicail Science Abstracts (IPSA), France, Pro Quest, Political Science Complete, and Current Abstracts. It is available online at EBSCO host, Ovid, NewsBank, LexisNexis, Dow Jones Factiva and Asianet-Pakistan. It is also available in Ulrich's Periodicals Directory and Ulrich's web.</p> en-US (Journal of European Studies) (.) Tue, 22 Jan 2019 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 RUSSIA AND CENTRAL ASIA: THE EURASIAN ORIENTATION OF DEVELOPMENT <p><span style="font-style: normal !msorm;"><em>The famous ‘Eurasian Heartland’ roughly including the </em></span><em>present-day<span style="font-style: normal !msorm;"> Russia</span><span style="font-style: normal !msorm;">,</span><span style="font-style: normal !msorm;"> the three </span><span style="font-style: normal !msorm;">South </span><span style="font-style: normal !msorm;">Caucasian</span><span style="font-style: normal !msorm;"> and the five Central Asian states viz. Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kirghizstan and Tajikistan </span>has<span style="font-style: normal !msorm;"> been a </span><span style="font-style: normal !msorm;">highly contested </span><span style="font-style: normal !msorm;">region in world politics due to</span> <span style="font-style: normal !msorm;">geo-political, cultural </span><span style="font-style: normal !msorm;">and economic reasons</span><span style="font-style: normal !msorm;">. In the post-</span>C<span style="font-style: normal !msorm;">old </span>Wa<span style="font-style: normal !msorm;">r era it became </span><span style="font-style: normal !msorm;">the</span> center<span style="font-style: normal !msorm;"> of euphoric expectations for the regional as well as world powers – expectations that </span><span style="font-style: normal !msorm;">ranged</span><span style="font-style: normal !msorm;"> from</span><span style="font-style: normal !msorm;"> energy </span><span style="font-style: normal !msorm;">to geo-strategic balances and imbalances, and </span><span style="font-style: normal !msorm;">to </span><span style="font-style: normal !msorm;">the Fukuyama brand</span><span style="font-style: normal !msorm;"> of</span><span style="font-style: normal !msorm;"> ‘triumph of liberal democracy’ in the region. Shatter</span><span style="font-style: normal !msorm;">ing of those dreams </span><span style="font-style: normal !msorm;">reduced </span><span style="font-style: normal !msorm;">the region</span><span style="font-style: normal !msorm;">’s</span> <span style="font-style: normal !msorm;">profile in</span><span style="font-style: normal !msorm;"> international politics</span><span style="font-style: normal !msorm;">.</span> <span style="font-style: normal !msorm;">However, </span><span style="font-style: normal !msorm;">recently </span><span style="font-style: normal !msorm;">it </span><span style="font-style: normal !msorm;">has again emerged with </span><span style="font-style: normal !msorm;">a </span><span style="font-style: normal !msorm;">potential of</span><span style="font-style: normal !msorm;"> politico-economic development. From the formation of th</span><span style="font-style: normal !msorm;">e Eurasian Economic Union (2015</span><span style="font-style: normal !msorm;">) to the continuing political and e</span><span style="font-style: normal !msorm;">co</span><span style="font-style: normal !msorm;">nomic instability in the </span><span style="font-style: normal !msorm;">region,</span> <span style="font-style: normal !msorm;">all in the backdrop of rise of China as an emerging world power</span><span style="font-style: normal !msorm;">,</span> <span style="font-style: normal !msorm;">the</span><span style="font-style: normal !msorm;"> rising</span><span style="font-style: normal !msorm;"> Russia</span><span style="font-style: normal !msorm;">n profile in </span><span style="font-style: normal !msorm;">Central Asia is again being discussed in </span><span style="font-style: normal !msorm;">policy</span>-<span style="font-style: normal !msorm;">making</span><span style="font-style: normal !msorm;"> circles</span><span style="font-style: normal !msorm;">. </span><span style="font-style: normal !msorm;">&nbsp;</span><span style="font-style: normal !msorm;">In this context, this paper offers an overview of the </span><span style="font-style: normal !msorm;">Eurasian concept(s) with particular reference to t</span><span style="font-style: normal !msorm;">he Russo-Central Asian politics and policies </span><span style="font-style: normal !msorm;">that </span><span style="font-style: normal !msorm;">are likely to cause a profound impact on regional and international </span><span style="font-style: normal !msorm;">dynamics in the future</span><span style="font-style: normal !msorm;">. </span><span style="font-style: normal !msorm;">It</span>’s <span style="font-style: normal !msorm;">chief</span><span style="font-style: normal !msorm;"> argument is</span><span style="font-style: normal !msorm;"> that</span><span style="font-style: normal !msorm;"> due to Moscow’s growing interest,</span><span style="font-style: normal !msorm;"> the historical Eurasian Heartland is likely to play a more decisive role in </span><span style="font-style: normal !msorm;">the coming decades.</span></em></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Key Words:</strong> Eurasian Heartland, Russia, Central Asia, Eurasian Theories, Political Development, Economic Development</p> Hina Khan, Dr. ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 17 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0000 THE RESUSCITATION OF ORTHODOX CHRISTIANITY AND TSARIST SYMBOLISM IN POST-SOVIET RUSSIA: AN ANALYSIS <p><em>It has been a generation since the end of Bolshevik rule in Russia. In the last 25 years, we have seen a fervent urgency to reconnect contemporary Russian society with its pre-Bolshevik past. This perseverance has been manifested by the appearances of monuments that hark back to the days of monarchic Russia. The Russian Orthodox Church has been at the forefront in all this rejuvenation. Under increasing state patronage, it has undertaken efforts to reshape the national trajectory. In addition, Tsarist regalia abounds state architecture. This symbolism carries deep signification. It communicates motifs that are essential to understand Moscow’s diplomatic posturing. The conservatism enshrined within these expressions challenges the liberal consensus that has been the order of the day since the end of the Cold War. Furthermore, this article asserts that Russian nationalism is inextricably linked with Orthodox Christianity. There is no place for pagan allegory in Russian identity.</em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> Orthodox Church, Tsarism, Symbolism</p> Muhammad Ahsan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 17 Jun 2019 09:53:29 +0000 PAK-RUSSIA RELATIONS IN THE EMERGING GEO-STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENT <p><em>There are no perpetual friends or foes in the international diplomatic realm. Instead, the ever-changing global dynamics and regional geo-political realties not only forge new alignments but also wash away older animosities. A case in point is the revival in the Pak- Russia relations and its impact on the regional status quo namely, the state of affairs between Pakistan and India. Also, the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) now falls well within this context. The present study focuses on the growing ties between Islamabad and Moscow, and the risks and opportunities that may precipitate subsequently. The qualitative and quantitative data is dealt analytically to determine how Pakistan can get the most out of this momentous development.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: CPEC, Pak-Russia relations, Eurasian region, South Asian regional dynamics, Geo-strategic importance of Pakistan,</p> Tasneem Sultana, Prof. Dr., Sahar Afshan, Zobi Fatima, Dr. ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 18 Jun 2019 05:27:09 +0000 THE EMERGENCE OF INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS IN EUROPE: A HISTORICAL RECAPTURE <p><em>The</em> <em>modern conception of individual rights took many centuries to emerge in its current state. The Europeans trace the origin of representative traditions of democratic political system and many aspects of their culture to ancient Greek and Roman civilizations, collectively referred as the ‘Western Heritage’. The idea germinated during the intellectual, cultural, and religious reform movements, and this growth took speed during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The movements of Renaissance, Reformation and Humanism played a key role in the emancipation of people. This paper recaptures the history of the origin and development of individual rights within European context.</em></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> Renaissance, Reformation, Humanism, English Bill of Rights, French Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen</p> Muhammad Abrar Zahoor ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 18 Jun 2019 05:42:03 +0000 THE BRITISH NATIONAL HEALTHCARE SERVICE AND PUBLIC HEALTHCARE DELIVERY IN PAKISTAN: A COMPARISON <p><em>This article describes the establishment and evolution of the British National Health Service (NHS). It delineates its structure and operating mechanism along with the pressures it has had to face in the last seven decades since its conception. It then compares the details with the healthcare sector in Pakistan. It holds that public spending on health and medicine in Pakistan does not encompass the rapidly changing demographics and urbanization. Additionally, the NHS could provide a way forward for any meaningful and substantive state intervention in this regard. The article concludes with some policy suggestions that in the opinion of the authors if implemented may offset the growing challenges in the public health sector.</em></p> Shaista Shaheen Zafar, Dr., Maryam Bibi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 18 Jun 2019 06:01:05 +0000 MANAGING WORKFORCE DIVERSITY IN MULTICULTURAL ORGANIZATIONS: SOME OBSERVATIONS <p><em>In today’s global economy, attaining organizational goals has become a big challenge due to increasing workforce diversity. Thus, it has become vital to analyze workplace diversity as an integral part of any organization and make it an essential instrument for achieving financial targets and overall organizational success. Technical competence and cognitive abilities of a manager merely suffice the need of managing such workplace. In order to manage an organization with diversified workforce, it is incumbent upon managers to possess effective soft skills like communication, listening, leadership, emotional intelligence, diversity awareness, intercultural competence etc.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Workforce diversity, multiculturalism, soft skills, organizational communication, diversity awareness, intercultural competence.</p> Abdul Rahman Zaki, Prof. Dr., Arshad Syed Karim, Prof. Dr., Hina Khan, Dr. ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 21 Jun 2019 05:01:21 +0000 SOCIO-POLITICAL CONVULSIONS IN EUROPE AND THEIR IMPACT ON SWISS POLITICAL GOVERNANCE <p><em>It is almost impossible for any state to remain indifferent to the events happening in the world. Arguably, the last 200 years have been the most eventful in world history. Socio-political earthquakes like the French revolution and subsequent diplomatic realignments have had monumental repercussions. Curiously enough, the state of Switzerland despite being almost at the center of all that tumult kept itself relatively stable. This paper is a qualitative study that analyzes how the Swiss mode of political management warded off crises in its immediate neighbourhood.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Switzerland, events, influence, political governance</p> Muhammad Issa ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 21 Jun 2019 05:05:53 +0000 From Warfare to Wealth: The Military Origins of Urban Prosperity in Europe Sahar Afshan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 21 Jun 2019 05:16:40 +0000 The Politics of Borders: Sovereignty, Security, and the Citizen after 9/11 Zobi Fatima, Dr. ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 21 Jun 2019 05:21:56 +0000 June – December 2018 ASCE UOK ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 21 Jun 2019 05:40:41 +0000 European Commission - Speech Jean-Claude Juncker, President ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 21 Jun 2019 05:48:10 +0000