Journal of European Studies <p><img src="/public/site/images/openjournal/Journal-Header-Image.jpg"></p> <p>The Journal of European Studies is a bi-annual journal published by the Centre. It is a Higher Education Commision (HEC), Pakistan recognized Journal. The Journal is Abstracted / Indexed in Social Science Research Network (SSRN), International Politicail Science Abstracts (IPSA), France, Pro Quest, Political Science Complete, and Current Abstracts. It is available online at EBSCO host, Ovid, NewsBank, LexisNexis, Dow Jones Factiva and Asianet-Pakistan. It is also available in Ulrich's Periodicals Directory and Ulrich's web.</p> Area Study Centre For Europe, University of Karachi en-US Journal of European Studies 0258-9680 RUSSIA AND CENTRAL ASIA <p>The famous ‘Eurasian Heartland’ roughly including the present-day Russia, the three South Caucasian and the five Central Asian states viz. Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kirghizstan and Tajikistan has been a highly contested region in world politics due to geo-political, cultural and economic reasons. In the post-Cold War era it became the center of euphoric expectations for the regional as well as world powers – expectations that ranged from energy to geo-strategic balances and imbalances, and to the Fukuyama brand of ‘triumph of liberal democracy’ in the region. Shattering of those dreams reduced the region’s profile in international politics. However, recently it has again emerged with a potential of politico-economic development. From the formation of the Eurasian Economic Union (2015) to the continuing political and economic instability in the region, all in the backdrop of rise of China as an emerging world power, the rising Russian profile in Central Asia is again being discussed in policy-making circles. In this context, this paper offers an overview of the Eurasian concept(s) with particular reference to the Russo-Central Asian politics and policies that are likely to cause a profound impact on regional and international dynamics in the future. It’s chief argument is that due to Moscow’s growing interest, the historical Eurasian Heartland is likely to play a more decisive role in the coming decades.</p> Dr. Hina Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-21 2019-01-21 35 1 1 23 THE RESUSCITATION OF ORTHODOX CHRISTIANITY AND TSARIST SYMBOLISM IN POST-SOVIET RUSSIA <p>It has been a generation since the end of Bolshevik rule in Russia. In the last 25 years, we have seen a fervent urgency to reconnect contemporary Russian society with its pre-Bolshevik past. This perseverance has been manifested by the appearances of monuments that hark back to the days of monarchic Russia. The Russian Orthodox Church has been at the forefront in all this rejuvenation. Under increasing state patronage, it has undertaken efforts to reshape the national trajectory. In addition, Tsarist regalia abounds state architecture. This symbolism carries deep signification. It communicates motifs that are essential to understand Moscow’s diplomatic posturing. The conservatism enshrined within these expressions challenges the liberal consensus that has been the order of the day since the end of the Cold War. It fundamentally contests the prevalent cosmopolitanism and the values it has propagated. Furthermore, this article asserts that Russian nationalism is inextricably linked with Orthodox Christianity. There is no place for pagan allegory in Russian identity.</p> Mr. Muhammad Ahsan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-21 2019-01-21 35 1 24 35 PAK-RUSSIA RELATIONS IN THE EMERGING GEO-STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENT <p>There are no perpetual friends or foes in the international diplomatic realm. Instead, the ever-changing global dynamics and regional geo-political realties not only forge new alignments but also wash away older animosities. A case in point is the revival in the Pak- Russia relations and its impact on the regional status quo namely, the state of affairs between Pakistan and India. Also, the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) now falls well within this context. The present study focuses on the growing ties between Islamabad and Moscow, and the risks and opportunities that may precipitate subsequently. The qualitative and quantitative data is dealt analytically to determine how Pakistan can get the most out of this momentous development.</p> Dr. Tasneem Sultana Ms. Sahar Afshan Dr. Zobi Fatima ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-21 2019-01-21 35 1 36 53 THE EMERGENCE OF INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS IN EUROPE <p>The modern conception of individual rights took many centuries to emerge in its current state. The Europeans trace the origin of representative traditions of democratic political system and many aspects of their culture to ancient Greek and Roman civilizations, collectively referred as the ‘Western Heritage’. The idea germinated during the intellectual, cultural, and religious reform movements, and this growth took speed during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The movements of Renaissance, Reformation and Humanism played a key role in the emancipation of people. This paper recaptures the history of the origin and development of individual rights within European context.</p> Mr. Muhammad Abrar Zahoor ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-21 2019-01-21 35 1 54 66 THE BRITISH NATIONAL HEALTHCARE SERVICE AND PUBLIC HEALTHCARE DELIVERY IN PAKISTAN <p>This article describes the establishment and evolution of the British National Health Service (NHS). It delineates its structure and operating mechanism along with the pressures it has had to face in the last seven decades since its conception. It then compares the details with the healthcare sector in Pakistan. It holds that public spending on health and medicine in Pakistan does not encompass the rapidly changing demographics and urbanization. Additionally, the NHS could provide a way forward for any meaningful and substantive state intervention in this regard. The article concludes with some policy suggestions that in the opinion of the authors if implemented may offset the growing challenges in the public health sector.</p> Dr. Shaista Shaheen Zafar Ms. Maryam Bibi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-21 2019-01-21 35 1 67 78 MANAGING WORKFORCE DIVERSITY IN MULTICULTURAL ORGANIZATIONS <p>In today’s global economy, attaining organizational goals has become a big challenge due to increasing workforce diversity. Thus, it has become vital to analyze workplace diversity as an integral part of any organization and make it an essential instrument for achieving financial targets and overall organizational success. Technical competence and cognitive abilities of a manager merely suffice the need of managing such workplace. In order to manage an organization with diversified workforce, it is incumbent upon managers to possess effective soft skills like communication, listening, leadership, emotional intelligence, diversity awareness, intercultural competence etc.</p> Prof. Dr. Arshad Syed Karim Prof. Dr. Abdul Rahman Zaki Ms. Hina Mubeen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-21 2019-01-21 35 1 79 91 SOCIO-POLITICAL CONVULSIONS IN EUROPE AND THEIR IMPACT ON SWISS POLITICAL GOVERNANCE <p>It is almost impossible for any state to remain indifferent to the events happening in the world. Arguably, the last 200 years have been the most eventful in world history. Socio-political earthquakes like the French revolution and subsequent diplomatic realignments have had monumental repercussions. Curiously enough, the state of Switzerland despite being almost at the center of all that tumult kept itself relatively stable. This paper is a qualitative study that analyzes how the Swiss mode of political management warded off crises in its immediate neighbourhood.</p> Mr. Muhammad Issa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-21 2019-01-21 35 1 92 105 From Warfare to Wealth Ms. Sahar Afshan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-21 2019-01-21 35 1 106 107 The Politics of Borders Dr. Zobi Fatima ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-21 2019-01-21 35 1 108 110 June – December 2018 ASCE UOK ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-22 2019-01-22 35 1 111 123 European Commission - State of the Union Address 2018 President Jean-Claude Juncker ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-22 2019-01-22 35 1 124 138